Thursday, January 30, 2014

How Urban Ecosystems may enhance the overall efficiency of the Urban Settlements?

Urban Ecosystem : -Business District, Cairo, Egypt
Source :-
Stockholm has a large and varied ecological structure. In the City of Stockholm, parks and green space occupy 56 km2 (26%), and water area cover 28 km2 (13%) of the total area of 215 km2. This is considerably more water and green space than possessed by most other cities, and gives Stockholm its unique character. The city is situated on a number of islands between the fresh water lake Mc’laren and the brackish Baltic Sea. Stockholm also has a special feature with a number of green wedges pointing towards the city centre. This allows the ecosystems close to the city centre to be linked with larger ecosystems outside of the city.
An ecosystem can be defined as ‘‘a set of interacting species and their local, non-biological environment functioning together to sustain life’’ (Moll and Petit, 1994). However, the borders between different ecosystems are often diffuse. In the case of the urban environment, it is both possible to define the city as one single ecosystem or to see the city as composed of several individual ecosystems, e.g. parks and lakes (Rebele,1994). The urban ecosystem hence forms after human interventions and interferences takes place for more complex economic and institutional activities. These can be divided into seven further sub-categories to give a general outlook of its broad types. However, the urban ecosystem can be perceived to as a single system performing all the activities and also as a combination of different systems which are inter-related and inter-dependent for their efficient functioning. Following seven types of urban ecosystem has been identified and it may vary according to the view as the system as a whole or in various systems in isolation to form an efficient functional system.
Street trees are stand-alone trees, often surrounded by paved ground.  Lawns/parks are managed green areas with a mixture of grass, larger trees, and other plants. Areas such as playgrounds and golf courses are also included in this group.  Urban forests are less managed areas with a denser tree stand than parks. Cultivated land and gardens are used for growing various food items. Wetlands consist of various types of marshes and swamps. Lakes/sea includes the open water areas. Streams refer to flowing water. Other areas within the city, such as dumps and abandoned backyards, may also contain significant populations of plants and animals. It should be possible, however, to place most urban ecosystems or elements in one of the above mentioned categories.
Source : -
Air – Filtration and Reduction in the Impact of Air Pollution - Vegetation reduces air pollution, but to what level seems to depend on the local situation (Svensson and Eliasson, 1997). The reduction is primarily caused by vegetation filtering pollution and particulates from the air. Filtering capacity increases with more leaf area, and is thus higher for trees than bushes or grassland (Givoni, 1991). Due to the larger total surface area of needles, coniferous trees have a larger filtering capacity than trees with deciduous leaves (Stolt, 1982). This capacity is also greater because the needles are not shed during the winter, when the air quality is usually worst. However, coniferous trees are sensitive to air pollution and deciduous trees are better at absorbing gases (Stolt, 1982). A mix of species therefore seems to be the best alternative. In general, vegetation is much better than water or open spaces for filtering the air. The method or the subsequent approach to maximize the self-sustenance of the urban ecosystem may vary from region to region with the change in the complexity of them with topography, climatic conditions, soil conditions, hydrology, etc, to name a few. A thick vegetation planted in accordance with the soil condition and the hydrology of the area generally helps in the reduction of the Carbon footprints.

Micro-climate regulation, at street and city level - These urban ecosystems may regulate the micro-climatic conditions. The urban heat island effect is caused by the large area of heat absorbing surfaces, in combination with high amounts of energy use in cities. All natural ecosystems in urban areas will help to reduce these differences. Water areas in the city will help even out temperature deviations both during summer and winter. Vegetation is also important. A single large tree can transpire 450 l of water per day. It is very important for the planners to understand the concept and functioning of these urban ecosystems. If used constructively, they can be a great support for maintaining, enhancing and improving the conditions of the natural system as a whole.
Noise reduction - Noise from traffic and other sources creates health problems for people in urban areas. One source states that a dense shrubbery, at least 5 m wide can reduce noise levels by 2 dB(A) and that a 50-m wide plantation can lower noise levels by 3–6 dB(A). Increasing the areas with soft ground and vegetation may decrease these noise levels. Vegetation may also contribute by shielding the visual intrusion of traffic and thus making it less disturbing: Evergreen trees are preferred in this case.
Rainwater drainage - The built-up infrastructure, with concrete and tarmac covering the ground, results in alterations of water flow compared to an equivalent rural catchment. A higher proportion of rainfall becomes surface-water run-off which results in increased peak flood discharges and degraded water quality through the pick-up of e.g. urban street pollutants (Haughton and Hunter, 1994). The impervious surfaces and high extraction of water cause the groundwater level of many cities to decrease. Vegetated areas contribute to solving this problem in several ways. The soft ground of vegetated areas allows water to seep through and the vegetation takes up water and releases it into the air through evapotranspiration.

Sewage Treatment - In many cities, large scale experiments are taking place where natural systems, mainly wetlands, are being used to treat sewage water. The wetland plants and animals can assimilate large amounts of the nutrients and slow down the flow of the sewage water, allowing particles to settle out on the bottom. Up to 96% of the nitrogen and 97% of the phosphorous can be retained in wetlands, and so far wetland restorations have largely been successful, increasing biodiversity and substantially lowering costs of sewage treatment (Ewel, 1997). The cost of nitrogen reduction through wetland restoration has been calculated to 20–60 SEK while the cost in a sewage treatment plant is 33–350 SEK (Gren, 1995). Other benefits of wetlands, e.g. biomass production and biodiversity, have not been included in these figures.

A city is a stressful environment for its citizens. The overall speed and number of impressions cause hectic lifestyles with little room for rest and contemplation. The recreational aspects of all urban ecosystems, with possibilities to play and rest, are perhaps the highest valued ecosystem service in cities. All ecosystems also provide aesthetic and cultural values to the city and lend structure to the landscape. Botkin and Beveridge (1997) argue that ‘‘Vegetation is essential to achieving the quality of life that creates a great city and that makes it possible for people to live a reasonable life within an urban environment’’.
These are just a few examples, natural systems if studied intensively holds the questions of many of the urban settlements and the concept of self-sustenance of them can be further implemented in the further era of development. The ecologists inclusion in the planning activities and the role played by them should be strengthened and appropriateness of the document of 'environment impact assessment' should be put at the serious examination. The complexity of the modern urban settlements should include the intensity of the significance of the various natural systems involved in it's formation.
These urban ecosystems have to be understood more intensively and they have to be wisely used to make and improve the efficiency of the urban ecosystem which at large affects the lives of the inhabitants. The integration of the land use and transportation planning to build the sustainable cities of the future may look a myth, if the consideration of the urban settlements as a system is not considered while preparing the plans. I wonder sometimes how the planners may after studying the complexity of the urban settlements generally ignores and side-lines this fact of the city as a system. You may build wider roads, may increase the infrastructural developments, may provide green spaces as per standards, but if you fails in understanding the concept of system, I doubt for the real sustainable future of our cities.
Sources : Different.

Monday, January 27, 2014

Aren't the Urban Settlements a combination of various Natural Systems?

While cities have traditionally been seen as aberrations of ‘nature’, such a distinction neglects the opportunity to envision human built environments that can exist in balance with the wider ecological systems. The city acts as a system, ignorance of which has led to the inefficiency of the urban ecosystem thus established. Sustainability can only be achieved when cities are approached as systems and components of nested systems in ecological balance with each other (UN-Habitat). Urban Planners are typically concerned with some of the pressing issues which are in general related to the provision of essential urban services, regulation of certain private activities and the provision and upkeep of related public works. The approach followed by the contemporary urban planners fails to measure the wider aspects responsible for the planning, formation, construction and growth of any urban settlement. The question of the sustenance of Ekistics, as coined by C. A. Doxiadis in dealing with the ever increasing complexities of the urban settlements with the advancements in science and technology with increased human interferences comes into light. Ekistics, as outlined by Doxiadis in his essay on Ekistics (1968) calls for a co-disciplinary approach to study the wider elements involved in the process of human settlements. Significantly it is important to place an approach within the context of a wider and longer term perspective and a set of goals. The issues and areas which holds pretty important in studying city as a system are - complexity and the significance of the natural systems in urban settlements, the approaches followed by the race of humanity in his transitions from the primitive settlements to the modern one to support the efficiency of them, critical appraisal of the contemporary urban planning process especially in the field of ecology, its enhancement and improvement, the role which the discipline of Ekistics can play in the true sustainable development and will then be proceeded to outline the revival policy which may prove beneficial in the coming decades.
Humanity is increasingly urban, but continues to depend on Nature for its survival. Cities are dependent on the ecosystems beyond the city limits, but also benefit from internal urban ecosystems. Seven different urban ecosystems have been identified: street trees; lawns/parks; urban forests; cultivated land; wetlands; lakes/sea; and streams. When humanity is considered a part of nature, cities themselves can be regarded as a global network of ecosystems. If compared with natural ecosystems, the man-made ones are however immature due to features like their rapid growth and inefficient use of resources such as energy and water (Haughton and Hunter, 1994). Odum (1971) even observed cities to be the ‘‘only parasites in the biosphere’’ which has subsequently been changed into outlining cities as ‘the engines of economic growth’.
Most of the problems present in urban areas are locally generated, such as those due to traffic. Often the most effective, and in some cases the only, way to deal with these local problems is through local solutions. In this respect, the urban ecosystems are vital. An ecosystem can be defined as ‘‘a set of interacting species and their local, non-biological environment functioning together to sustain life’’ (Moll and Petit, 1994). However, the borders between different ecosystems are often diffuse. In the case of the urban environment, it is both possible to define the city as one single ecosystem or to see the city as composed of several individual ecosystems, e.g. parks and lakes (Rebele, 1994).

We may have seen the management related problems regarding the sewerages and waste materials of various cities. Though the lack of awareness amongst the people is also an issue in this regard but it may also be increased by the various awareness programs relating the issue on the authorities’ behalf only. We can't wait for the people to get educated as this will ask for a period of time and still after becoming educated, it's not 100% sure that they will be educated with human values. This issue hence needs to be rooted out on the planning part only. Only few urban planners knows about the intensity and inter-relations of the  various urban ecosystem and if in case they are aware of the term, they will find it very difficult implementing them in their planning process, subsequently which leads them to ignoring the issue or rather just completing the various standards set by the concerned authorities. The urban ecosystem if wisely used, serves the best for the various 'Solid waste disposal systems' and other critical issues related with the urban settlements. For instance, if wetlands are considered, they results in better water management, also it also reduces the cost factor and may increase the recreational cultural values. It may serve in a number of very intense issues. Planning has rather failed a long way in serving any of these systems in general. 
The much talked sustainable development, if will ignore the aspect of the city as a system, will arise difficulty in reviving them further. The sustainable development should hence be studied parallel with the natural system which after human interferences becomes an urban ecosystem. I’m preparing an approach for the inclusive development of both these aspects, as the current approaches I’ve read in recent times though talks for the holistic approach but somewhere down the line they seem to have failed to deal with the ecosystem management at a wider aspect. I’ve been saying through my blogs that urban settlements aren’t just a place for human living or the development in infrastructure and transit system. It has a much wider things related and with the rising complexity of them, it has made really difficult, the job of the urban planners to plan them keeping in view the accelerated changes, the modern urban settlements generally experiences.

Images from dexigner and eolss

Friday, January 24, 2014

The Economic Impact of Land and Urban Planning Regulations in India. Alain Bertaud - Review

Bertaud, Alain. (April, 2002). The economic impact of land and urban planning regulations in India.

Alain Bertaud in his research work done in India under the title ‘The economic impact of land and urban planning regulations in India’ looks into the planning and land regulation policies and their impact of them on the supply and demand for urban land. In the introductory note, he noted ‘the regulatory environment in India has contributed to a criminalization of real estate’.  He led responsible regulations in making construction unaffordable for the major section of the citizens. His thoughts were well supported by examples and case studies from different states of the country.

He appealed for the regular audit of the various planning regulations. The author emphasised that the basis for these audits should be governed by three forces - impact on development costs, land affordability for various socio-economic groups and their negative impact on the environment. He then talks about the impacts of them briefly discussing the rent control policy, high stamp duty, large institutional land holdings, inadequate primary infrastructure, plot sizes, intensification of CBD’s, land subdivision regulations, etc,.

In the next phase he identified the expected outcomes of the regulatory reforms and provided the solutions and measures for defining the approach of urban planning. He advocated for the compact cities and more efficient land use. He took a note on the slums and asked for the precautionary measures for the authorities to prevent them before their occurrence. Talking about the land prices, he propagated the need to lower the residential land prices and regulate the prices of the land of the cities prime commercial and business areas to compensate the differences. He also mentioned the increasing trip lengths and called for the intensification of the CBD’s to make less dispersion of the employment thus decreasing the trip lengths. Increase in the consumption of floor space per person for both commercial and residential sectors will eventually led to increase the productivity of the manpower. He also mentioned the use of the ‘ad valorem property tax’ which constitutes an incentive for the local authorities to maintain the land at its best and higher use. In his final note he talked about the rising corruption and took it also a key concern for the rising land values. The land regulations should be regulated likewise as it decreases the opportunity for corruption.

The research paper though provides with an informative aspect but it at some points it lack the proper understanding of the Indian aspect of development. His thoughts and views into the various regulation policies is worthy in respect with the impacts discussed in brief. The comparative studies with different cities provided a base for the implementation process. It talks about a general concept based on human values and emphasised on the socio economic and environmental issues as well.

 The research work could be taken into consideration while developing and regulating the urban planning regulations as it takes a neutral approach in understanding the aspects. The author mentioned ‘Some regulations should not be repealed but simply amended’, suggests a deep insight. He’s not against the regulations in his words rather he suggest some measures which should be inculcated for better and efficient path of human and economic development.

The work could be improved as well with more exemplary notes which may have acted as the basis. The author has however generalised the whole Indian scenario, which could not be possible and beneficial for all parts of this second most populous nations of the globe. However, the overall study is worth a read for the professionals involved in the disciplines relating the field of urban planning, especially those who are involved in planning activities in the developing nations like India.

Wednesday, January 22, 2014

Does the guidelines for sustainable development of Urban Settlements really talk of something that is the Need of the Hour?

The Shifts

     The complexity of cities could be well understood by studying the transitional developments faced by the race of humanity from primitive settlements to modern settlement of current times. The city transforms its character and shape in accordance with the construction of social spaces and the character of the residing societies. Hence, developing healthy social relationships and healthy society should be a key concern for performing different urban planning exercises. The Forward Planning will play a key role in this so-called shift in approach of the urban planning. Other concepts which include a major share in designing and building the cities of tomorrow would be ‘The Participatory Approach’ and ‘The Feed-Back Planning’. These two terms are clear as the name suggests. The former one includes the inhabitants of the city as an active member who are aware of the developmental policies, schemes and be a part of the city planning by enhancing and promoting the feedback planning as the local inhabitants are a bit more aware of the local problems than the planners can be. Moreover, researches and researchers should to promoted especially for the Indian Context to study the underlying conditions of the Indian conditions and cities and establish an approach which suits and fits the envelope of Indian diverse culture and conditions. Foreign Models can’t be directly transferred. Here are some shifts outlined by some European Community/organization for the sustainable development of the so-called cities.

·       Foresight is especially relevant tool for managing transitions, overcoming conflicts and contradictions between objectives, and developing a better understanding of realities, capacities and objectives.

·     In the context of weakened links between economic growth and social progress, social innovation offers an opportunity to widen the public space for civic engagement, creativity, innovation and cohesion.

·      New governance modes based on citizens' empowerment, participation of all relevant stakeholders and innovative use of social capital are needed.

·      Cities have to work across sectors and not let ‘mono-sectoral’ visions set the agenda of what urban life should be like.

·    Creating a resilient and inclusive economy – the present economic development model, in which economic growth does not equate to more jobs, raises challenges: to ensure a decent life for those left outside the labour market and to engage them in society.

·      The potential of socio-economic, cultural, generational and ethnic diversity must be further exploited as a source of innovation. Cities of tomorrow have to be both elderly-friendly and family-friendly, as well as places of tolerance and respect.

·       Combating spatial exclusion and energy poverty with better housing is key to not only making a city and its agglomeration more attractive and liveable, but also making it more eco-friendly and competitive.

·   Making cities ‘green and healthy’ goes far beyond simply reducing CO2 emissions. A holistic approach to environmental and energy issues has to be adopted, as the many components of the natural ecosystem are interwoven with those of the social, economic, cultural and political urban system in a unique manner.

·     Thriving and dynamic small and medium-sized cities can play an important role in the well-being not only of their own inhabitants but also of the surrounding rural populations. They are essential for avoiding rural depopulation and urban drift and for promoting balanced territorial development.

·    A sustainable city must have attractive open public spaces and promote sustainable, inclusive and healthy mobility. Non-car mobility has to become more attractive and multimodal public transport systems favoured.

 Cities of tomorrow have to adopt a holistic model of sustainable urban development.

§ Deal with challenges in an integrated, holistic way;

§ Match place- and people-based approaches;

§ Develop governance systems capable of building shared visions reconciling competing objectives and conflicting development models;

§ Cooperation among the communities in order to ensure coherent spatial development and an efficient use of resources.

The Big Question is :- Are the shifts/guidelines provided above covers up the wider complexity of the modern urban settlements? 

Cities are becoming even more complex entities with the advancements in science and technology. Cities can't be developed and designed by the concerning authorities and government organizations; it’s more of the community involvement and participation which shapes the city. Cities are more of a biological phenomenon and hence it moulds around the needs and perception of the citizens inhabiting the space. Cities also transforms over period of time and planning exercises should be done in accordance with them. The best thing would be to make aware the inhabitants about the city processes and inclusive part to be played by them in shaping the cities of tomorrow.

The Irony of Urban Settlements - The Cities of Differences

The cities across the Globe experiences the extremes of wealth and poverty, each concentrated in one or more sections of the city. The wealthy areas are generally well insulated from the city around them, sometimes in high-rise towers, sometimes at suburban-type remove. The other image of the cities i.e. the areas inhabited by the poor/forced migrants/poverty-stricken are marginalised, generally unconnected to the social and economic life of the city flourishing around them. The concentration is voluntary for the rich, involuntary for the poor (Peter Marcuse). These differences are just not registered at the social, cultural or economic level, they also constitute symbolically with groups inscribing spaces and zones with distinct meanings and discursive practices which are generally left unseen by the outsiders. There has been a sea change over the last two decades in how social/spatial divisions in cities are perceived and conceived with a shift from the notion of division to the idea of difference (Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson). In the developing countries like India, these differences become far more significant with the combination of increasing population and urbanization. Difference is constituted in all spatial relations but the particularity of the city is that it concentrates differences through its density of people and lived spaces, through the juxtaposition of different activities and land uses and through its intensities of interaction and interconnections (Massey, Allen and Pile). The cities of today seem fragmented and partitioned at the extreme, almost quartered.
The life of the so-called slum dwellers is by no means worthy for the human habitat. They are a matter of ignorance and lack of proper implementation for the various policies that are formulated. The quarters of the capital city of India is at stake keeping in mind that it is on the verge of becoming one of the first megacities of the world. The criticism of the cleavages in the city doesn’t imply a desire for cultural or social uniformity, or for the suppression of differences or the neglect of personal preferences and individual choices. What is called for then is not an egalitarian uniformity that wipes out all differences, but rather a careful structuring of public actions that will counteract the invidious pressures of hierarchical division all will solidify spaces of public openness, solidarity and communication, so structured as to allow of a full expression of civic life and the activities of civil society without the distortions of power (Peter Marcuse).
Source : -NDTV News
The life of the quarters cannot be considered worth for a human settlement and that too in the midst of high rise towers and buildings. This degrades the overall developmental growth and efficient formation of the urban settlements as well.
Does it really hold in a critical issue to be discussed? Are the cities of today facing complexity in terms of divisions and differences? What are the factors responsible for this high level of contrast in the cities? Doesn’t this clash of interest among the urbanites eventually lead to inefficiency of the cities? What can be done to successfully address the problem of the contemporary cities? The formulation of policies to deal with the harms revealed by the patterns of contemporary cities and structure is not hard; but the conflicts involved in putting such policies in place do not promise an easy success (Peter Marcuse). How far this notion is right? Hierarchical differences, differences based on ascribed rather than achieved characteristics, differences that permit some to exercise power over others are the main factors that contribute for the rising differences. Is there a way out? These are the question that has to be impartially weighed, as the resultant of the functioning and construction of different urban spaces eventually leads in shaping the cities in true sense.

Sunday, January 5, 2014

Is The Location Right? Waste To Power Energy Plant : A Step Ahead or a Step Back.

Okhla Ka Khosla - A Community Initiative 

Delhi, the capital of India, a melting pot of cultures with a heterogeneous society has grown and developed at a rapid pace leaving behind many cities in terms of infrastructure, employment opportunities with ever extending urban sprawls on the peripheral areas. With the population increasing both in terms of the number of migrants and the population within, it has increased a lot of pressure on the resources available. The population is also directly proportional to the amount of garbage produced. The advancements in the technology and sciences sector has also resulted into making the garbage produced a more complex one. The rural garbage is quite different and more renewable when compared with that of the urban spaces. On an average, 80% of the total consumption of water is drained out as waste water. With this amount of garbage and waste water being produced, the decision of the Delhi Government was worth and a good step as far as the usage of the resources and inclusive planning is concerned. But the location which was chosen and the long-term affects of the plant on the lives of the residents of the colonies in the close vicinity were ruthlessly ignored by the concerning authorities/departments. It lies barely around 150 metres away from the closest constructed residences.  Moreover, the location of the Bird Sanctuary in a radius of around 2-3 kilometres was also out looked. These are the factors which are quite important for the efficient working of the urban ecosystems and the natural system as a whole. This is where the approach of the contemporary urban planners and the governance system is suspected where the most important issues relating the human-nature relationship were ignored substantially.
The floodplains of Yamuna has experienced a significant downfall in terms of the number of migratory birds visits and of that of native species leaving the area as well. The various human-interferences ignoring the existence of the Bird Sanctuary in the vicinity has led to these changes misbalancing the urban ecosystems.

The controversial Okhla Waste Power Plant came alive in May, 2013.when it started selling power to distribution companies after converting garbage into electricity. On an average, 1,000 tonne of garbage — that usually had to be sent to the already overflowing landfill sites — is now making its way to the plant. The ambitious project of the Delhi government and the unified Municipal Corporation of Delhi had run into rough weather ever since its announcement was made, had foreseen the protests from the residents over the concerns that the fumes released through the chimneys contain poisonous chemicals. The residents are unhappy with the plant and want it to stop functioning. “The kind of smoke that has been emitting from this plant is making our lives hell. It is so dense that our clothes and vehicles are getting covered in ashes,” one of the residents of mentioned.
The plant generates smoke and toxic gases. It has a number of affects on the entire urban ecosystem and natural ecosystem as a whole. The reports of the Pollution Board has disapproved the emission of any toxic gases, but the residents protesting holds value in their words. Moreover, other such cases of electricity generation has disturbed human and other species viewing at the examples from the past. Though the step is worthy to maintain the sustainability issues, but if it comes out by worsening the life of the inhabitants, it's particularly senseless and of no-use.

Okhla residents opposing a controversial plant, which converts waste to energy, have also filed an affidavit in an ongoing National Green Tribunal case, claiming that the plant is operating in an eco-sensitive zone.  The affidavit claims that the Okhla waste to energy plant, a first in the country started by the Delhi government as an alternative power source, is about 2 km away from the Okhla Bird Sanctuary. The affidavit says since Uttar Pradesh notified the sanctuary and is in the process of declaring a 10-km eco-sensitive radius around the sanctuary, the state should be added as a party in the case.  "The government of UP is not aware of the setting up and operation [of the plant]," the affidavit claims, "...and it is the Okhla Bird Sanctuary under the government of UP, which is being adversely affected by emission of pollution."

While organising a road show today (05-01-2013), members of the Residents Welfare Association raised there voice on the issue. 'There have been 27 non-hearings in the court till now" - a member mentioned. "Sheila Dikshit (former chief minister of Dehi) has gone, AAP(Aam Aadmi Pary) has come into power. We urge from AAP and BJP to look into the matter as soon a possible" - another member quoted.

These are the matters of the governance system and authorities related to it. It is the sole duty of these authorities and government system to provide a healthy living to the inhabitants. While designing such proposals, a long-term approach (Forward Planning) and factors such as the above situation existed with, should be properly looked in and studied before the implementation process. Planners and authorities can't ignore the living values of the human and values of nature for whom they does the various urban planning exercises. The efficient working of any urban space lies within the relationship that human beings and nature holds together. Though its up to the concerning authorities, municipal bodies and the government to look into the matter with their own defined time, but its a serious matter of interest for the same as not only the lives of human beings are at stake, but its also deteriorating the ecosystem of which we all are part of.

The process of urbanization is at a rapid pace than ever before which leaves the human race with less time to think, research and make necessary and appropriate shifts towards the contemporary urban planning approach. The scenario in terms of technology and advancements is changing every moment and thus a change in the approach generally followed by the urban planners is required to help save the existing urban spaces by reviving them sustainably, as per human living values and human-nature relationship and also to help save the process of urbanization which is yet to be done in the developing countries. Cities have evolved into a more complex space inter-linked by a number of natural systems, disciplines of humanities, social sciences, economics, politics, anthropometrics, environmental science etc., and thus the development and growth of them has also changed significantly. Planners generally have failed to read The Urban Progression and thus the cities have failed significantly in terms of the ‘Quality of Life’ they provides in to their inhabitants.
I thought of writing this blog as soon as I returned home from watching the protest outside by the members of the Resident Welfare Association and others. The National Capital is on the path of urbanization with rapid pace and thus the developmental schemes which are proposed and the implementation process should all be made participatory with 'The Feed-Back Planning' aspect. It has proved beneficial earlier in many other cities across the globe.
The picture at large depicting the wider aspect of Human-Nature Relationship

I have been looking into the planning successes and failures of different cities especially Delhi for quite some time now and will be back with more such topics/issues which needs a mention in our journey of calculating The Urban Progression. The next blog will be about the developments and policies which were implemented in the Second City of United Sates of America i.e. Chicago. The facts and history behind the formation and growth of the city of Chicago has been very interesting and important to study for carrying out a change in the approach followed in the field of urban planning. Till Than Have Fun and Enjoy The Life !!